Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010  Excerpts below.




Balancing Calories to Manage Weight - Prevent and/or reduce overweight and obesity through improved eating and physical activity behaviors.


Control total calorie intake to manage body weight. For people who are overweight or obese, this will mean consuming fewer calories from foods and beverages.


Increase physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors.  2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans – recommends 30 minutes vigorous exercise most days of the week.


Maintain appropriate calorie balance during each stage of life—childhood, adolescence, adulthood, pregnancy and breastfeeding, and older age.


Food and Food Components to Reduce - Reduce daily sodium intake to less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) and further reduce intake to 1,500 mg among persons who are 51 and older and those of any age who are African American or have hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. The 1,500 mg recommendation applies to about half of the U.S. population, including children and the majority of adults.  One teaspoon of salt has about 2,300 mg sodium.


Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids, e.g. animal fats like cream, cheese, butter, lard and fatty meats; as well as certain vegetable products such as coconut oil, cottonseed oil, palm kernel oil, chocolate, and many prepared foods.


Replace saturated fats with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g. avocado, nuts, and vegetable oils.


Consume less than 300 mg per day of dietary cholesterol from foods like cheese, egg yolks, beef, pork, poultry, and shrimp.  One large egg yolk – 210 mg cholesterol.


Keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible by limiting foods that contain synthetic sources of trans fats, such as partially hydrogenated oils, and by limiting other solid fats (at room temperature like butter and shortening).


Reduce the intake of calories from solid fats and added sugars.


Limit the consumption of foods that contain refined grains, especially refined grain foods that contain solid fats, added sugars, and sodium.


If alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation—up to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men—and only by adults of legal drinking age.


Foods and Nutrients to Increase - Individuals should meet the following recommendations as part of a healthy eating pattern while staying within their calorie needs.


Increase vegetable and fruit intake.


Eat a variety of vegetables, especially dark-green (kale, collard/mustard/turnip greens, bok choy, watercress, spinach, brussel sprouts, arugula), red (tomato, red cabbage) and orange (squash, corn, carrots) and beans (kidney, black, pinto, navy) and peas (legumes includes peanuts).


Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains. Increase whole-grain intake by replacing refined grains with whole grains.


Increase intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, such as milk, yogurt, cheese, or fortified soy beverages.


Choose a variety of protein foods, which include seafood, lean meat and poultry, eggs, beans and peas, soy products, and unsalted nuts (almonds, pecans, walnuts, brazil, cashew) and seeds (flax, sunflower, pumpkin, quinoa).


Increase the amount and variety of seafood consumed by choosing seafood in place of some meat and poultry.


Replace protein foods that are higher in solid fats with choices that are lower in solid fats and calories and/or are sources of oils.


Use oils to replace solid fats where possible.


Choose foods that provide more potassium, dietary fiber, calcium, and vitamin D, which are nutrients of concern in American diets. These foods include vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk and milk products.


Building Healthy Eating Patterns


Select an eating pattern that meets nutrient needs over time at an appropriate calorie level.


Account for all foods and beverages consumed and assess how they fit within a total healthy eating pattern.


Follow food safety recommendations when preparing and eating foods to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses.”


Check Nutrition Fact Labels